Dr. Siri Kamath

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Diabetes is a chronic medical condition when the body cannot properly regulate blood sugar (glucose) levels. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, is crucial for this regulation.

Types of Diabetes:

  1. Type 1 Diabetes: Results from the immune system mistakenly attacking and destroying insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.  
  2. Type 2 Diabetes develops when the body becomes resistant to insulin or doesn’t produce enough insulin, often linked to lifestyle factors and genetics.
  3. Gestational Diabetes: Occurs during pregnancy when the body cannot produce sufficient insulin to meet the heightened demands.

Causes of Diabetes:

  1. Genetic Factors: Family history can increase the risk of type 1 and 2 diabetes.
  2. Lifestyle Choices: Poor diet, lack of physical activity, and obesity are significant contributors to type 2 diabetes.
  3. Autoimmune Response: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition where the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys insulin-producing cells.

Symptoms of Diabetes:

  1. Frequent Urination refers to an elevated urge to urinate, particularly at night.
  2. Excessive Thirst: Feeling constantly thirsty and drinking more fluids.
  3. Unexplained Weight Loss: Despite increased appetite, individuals may lose weight.
  4. Fatigue: Feeling extremely tired and lacking energy.
  5. Blurred Vision: Vision changes can occur.

Complications of Untreated Diabetes:

  1. Cardiovascular Issues: Increases the risk of heart disease and stroke.
  2. Kidney Damage: Diabetes is a leading cause of kidney failure.
  3. Eye Problems: This can lead to vision impairment and blindness.
  4. Nerve Damage: Numbness, tingling in extremities, and other nerve-related issues.
  5. Foot Problems: Diabetes increases the risk of foot ulcers and infections.

Managing Diabetes:

  1. Blood Sugar Monitoring: Regularly monitor blood sugar levels to ensure they stay within the target range.
  2. Medication: Insulin, oral medications, and other injectable drugs may be prescribed.
  3. Healthy Lifestyle: Adopting a balanced diet, regular exercise, and maintaining a healthy weight are crucial.
  4. Regular Check-ups: Routine medical check-ups help monitor overall health and detect complications early.


Understanding diabetes is pivotal for effective management and prevention of complications. By adopting a healthy lifestyle, closely monitoring blood sugar levels, and following prescribed treatments, individuals can lead fulfilling lives while managing diabetes. It’s crucial to work closely with healthcare professionals to create a personalized diabetes management plan.

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